You've got a good theory but, as I understand it, you have likely placed responsibility a little off where it likely belongs.
The animals likely come into urban areas simply because food is easier to get, not because they are following the prey animals and not because someone is feeding them. Garbage placed outside, composts, garbage dumps, all have huge amounts of food for wildlife. Where I grew up as a child in the interior of British Columbia, there were 10-12 bears that were permanent residents of the garbage dump.
Here in BC, if a cougar/bear gets your dog or cat, it is unfortunate but as long as the animal moves back out of populated areas, there isn't really action taken against the animal. If it attacks a person, or pulls out their permanent resident card, and that is a different matter. Usually the Conservation Officers (wildlife rangers? Not sure what the equivalent in the US is) will tranquilize or trap and relocate an animal rather than put it down.
Ultimately, the bear here, regardless of intent, got too close to a human, and will likely have lost it's healthy fear of the top predator on the planet and needed to be put down. Once they have laid a claw on a person, it's too late for resettlement/relocation or discouragement. You simply can't be certain what they have learned.
As for feeding, I think people are generally better than they were in the past. Here, BC Parks board maintains an education campaign with signage at all the parks ... "a fed bear, is a dead bear". Any front country area will have bear proof garbage containers provided by the Parks Board. That being said, there are still a lot of idiots that leave garbage all over. I think garbage is a far bigger cause of these problems than feeding.
So, ultimately, I think people are definitely at fault, but maybe not so intentionally as you opined.