my two cents, I am an avid outdoorsman, I love it all. From my outings in cold stormy weather, if in wooded areas a combonation of all types of shelt is needed. We will start with the shelter first dig a snow trench between two trees just enough that the hammock when hung doesnt touch snow. Second build an A-frame shelter and cut the ridge pole green ( this isnt killing a tree this could mean your life you decide wheather a tree is worth your life). Now find green or dead fall to fill in the side ( since these are serve condition green is best) you want this thing strong I have seen limbs break and go through lesser construction. Then lay you tarp over the A-frame this will help water and wind proof you. Now lay on all kinds of debris that is around. Then get in clean up your snowy floor a bit hang your hammock. The reason I use a hammock is first heat rises, Two you should have some sort of under insultation you came out in the first place in fairly harsh weather, and third you just sleep better.
As far as flat lands go tipi type shelter if you want to hang or just go with a snow cave. yes tipis will stand up to it, look at the natives who used them for 1000s of years.
Ok I have rambled enough.