i don't think poles would do enough to justify the weight, although you could easily rig a single pole under a tarptent with almost no modification, maybe just a small loop on the center of each edge and one on the underside of the ridgeline to keep it from falling over, you wouldn't really need a sleeve or anything, just something to hold it still. might be worth trying, i don't know if i would want to carry a 10 foot tent pole around on a hike though.
as far as my tarp goes, i feel the tieouts are plenty strong, and wind damage for the most part is no longer a concern. the panel pull outs keep the tarp away from the hammock in wind even when it has stretched and loosened due to moisture. as far as snow and ice goes, i don't have too much experience with that, i did have it set up in the backyard for a few days when we had 6" or more of snow, it mainly collected at the bottom of the sides, pushing the bottom edge in, which doesn't seem like too big a problem, i was able to push from the inside to remove it although it was quite heavy. when you say bombproof to what are you referring? seems like wind would be the biggest threat to a big tarp although i guess an ice storm might not be too friendly either. the regular snow didn't seem like it was too big of a deal. not sure it would hold up to the tornados from your neck of the woods (or lack therof